TABULAR PRESENTATION - Method of presenting data using the statistical table. - A systematic organization of data in columns and rows. Tabular PresentationBIBLIOGRAPHY [1]Statistical tables are the most In presenting three-variable tables, the data should be arranged so that the most. In the final analysis, there are only two rules in tabular presentation that shouId!be applied .. presenting data, and its usefulness increases with multiplicity of.

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By the same token, the last percentage in a column should be obtained by calculation rather than by subtraction; otherwise, a valuable check on the calculations will be destroyed. Rather, each percentage is better treated as half a dichotomous response for example, 40 per cent of the sample purchased a particular brand of coffee in the past tabular presentation of data, and 60 per cent did not.

### Tabular Presentation

If there are only a few possible responses, the percentages of respondents falling in the various patterns of response may be of interest. The number of decimals to retain in presenting percentages should 38 per cent, The case for the use of several decimals is based upon the following arguments: The case against the use of several decimals is that they often give a spurious air of precision The policy for retaining decimals should, in most cases, remain the same for all of the entries within an individual table, and usually the same within an entire report, except that relatively raw data tables in an appendix are usually more useful if the data are given to more decimals than they are in analytic tables in the body of the report.

Rounding should be to the nearest number. If one decimal place is to be retained, and the original calculation is If the original calculation is The usual convention is to always tabular presentation of data to the even possibility.

In some investigations, it is desirable to distinguish between a true zero no observations or responses in a category and a per cent rounded down to zero for example, if only one decimal place is being retained, 0.

## Tabular Presentation |

One convention is to use O. In other cases, the difference may not be important, especially if sampling fluctuation could easily change a true zero to some small nonzero per cent.

If the data reported in a table are derived from a probability sample, it is usually very tabular presentation of data to indicate the extent of sampling variability. Sometimes this is done by adding an indication of standard deviation for example, A device favored by the U.

Bureau of the Census is to give approximate confidence interval widths for per cents in various brackets in a footnote or in a small auxiliary table.

- Tabular Presentation

In a particular case, for example, such a footnote might indicate that if a per cent lies between 40 and 60, its 95 per cent confidence interval half width is about 5. If the tables come from a sample that is not based upon probability sampling, the basic problem of sampling fluctuation becomes much more difficult [see Sample surveys, article on nonprobability sampling].

Errors other than sampling ones are often very important but are typically discussed in the text rather than in a table [see Errors, article on nonsampling errors].

tabular presentation of data

The absolute frequencies that appear in a percentage table are tabular presentation of data three kinds: Some important reasons for tabular presentation of data cases are inapplicability for example, in Table 1, an unemployed person cannot have an opinion about his present employmentthe refusal of the respondent to answer the question or the failure of the interviewer to ask or to record itthe inability of the interviewer to locate the respondent the persistent not-at-homesand the inconsistency of a response.

Cases of this type are often thrown together into a single No Answer or Not Applicable category, but for some purposes for example, in considering the magnitudes of possible biases it is important to separate the reasons.

## Tabular Data Presentation

Unless all cases are accounted for in every table in a series, the total number of cases in the study should be reported tabular presentation of data every table. This enables the reader to detect and perhaps the analyst to avoid the all-too-common situation in which a result that appears to apply to the entire population studied is really based upon a small fraction of the tabular presentation of data.

It also forces the analyst to maintain a careful accounting of his cases. Note that IStripe is the superinterface.

The ITable implementation provides the virtual roots of the row and column hierarchies of a table model.