Standing was extended from September to January Nomor 96 Tahun Tentang Perubahan Atas Keputusan Presiden Nomor 53 Tahun Sander Thoenes, had already been virtually dropped as early as July or August because of 96 Tahun )” [Amendment of Presidential Decree No. Boulder: Westview Press, Sen, Krishna. “The Mega Factor Tahun Kekerasan Potret Pelanggaran HAM di Indonesia. Jakarta: Yayasan Lembaga.
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It argues that in Sukarno began fashioning his system of personal rule, to the detriment of Indonesia's parliamentary democracy.
University of Minnesota Human Rights Library
Another constitutional turning point occurred inwhen a rudimentary constitutional rule reappeared. The devaluation of the Chinese renminbiand the Japanese yen due to the Plaza Accord ofthe raising of U.
This made the United States a more attractive pp 96 tahun 2000 destination relative to Southeast Asia, which had been attracting pp 96 tahun 2000 money flows through high short-term interest rates, and raised the value of the U. For the Southeast Asian nations which had currencies pegged to the U.
At the same time, Southeast Asia's export growth slowed dramatically in the spring ofdeteriorating their current account position.
Kumpulan Peraturan | KPKNL Sorong
Some economists have advanced the growing exports of China as a factor contributing to ASEAN nations' export growth slowdown, though these economists maintain the main cause of their crises was excessive real estate speculation. Other economists dispute China's impact, noting that both ASEAN and China experienced simultaneous rapid export growth pp 96 tahun 2000 the early s.
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The resulting large quantities of credit that became available generated a highly leveraged economic climate, and pushed up asset prices to pp 96 tahun 2000 unsustainable level. Panic among lenders and withdrawal of credit[ edit ] The resulting panic among lenders led to a large withdrawal of credit from the crisis countries, causing a credit crunch and further bankruptcies.
1997 Asian financial crisis
In addition, as foreign investors attempted to withdraw their money, the exchange market was flooded with the currencies of the crisis countries, putting depreciative pressure on their exchange rates.
To prevent currency values collapsing, pp 96 tahun 2000 countries' governments raised domestic interest rates to exceedingly high levels pp 96 tahun 2000 help diminish flight of capital by making lending more attractive to investorsand to intervene in the exchange market - buying up any excess domestic currency at the fixed exchange rate with foreign reserves.
Neither of these policy responses could be sustained for long. Very high interest rates, which can be extremely damaging to an economy that is healthy, wreaked further havoc on economies in an already fragile state, while the central banks pp 96 tahun 2000 hemorrhaging foreign reserves, of which they had finite amounts.
When it became clear that the tide of capital fleeing these countries was not to be stopped, the authorities ceased defending their fixed exchange rates and allowed their currencies to float.
The resulting depreciated value of those currencies meant that foreign currency-denominated liabilities grew substantially in domestic currency pp 96 tahun 2000, causing more bankruptcies and further deepening the crisis. Other economists, including Joseph Stiglitz and Jeffrey Sachshave downplayed the role of the real economy in the crisis compared to the financial markets.
The rapidity with which pp 96 tahun 2000 crisis happened has prompted Sachs and others to compare it to a classic bank run prompted by a sudden risk shock. Sachs pointed to strict monetary and contractionary fiscal policies implemented by the governments on the advice of the IMF in the wake of the crisis, while Frederic Mishkin points to the role of asymmetric information in the financial markets that led to a " herd mentality " among investors that magnified a small risk in the real economy.
The crisis has thus attracted interest from behavioral economists interested in market psychology. During the s, hot money flew into the Pp 96 tahun 2000 Asia region through financial hubsespecially Hong Kong.
The investors were often ignorant of the actual fundamentals or risk profiles of the respective economies, and once the crisis gripped the region, coupled with the political uncertainty regarding the future of Hong Kong as an Asian financial centre led some investors to withdraw from Asia altogether.
This shrink in investments only worsened the financial conditions in Asia  subsequently leading to the depreciation of the Thai baht on 2 July Studi Empiris Determinasi Ketidakadilan Sosio-ekonomi.
Readings in Rule Structures and Conflict Relationships. Working Papers Series Genealogies of Islamic Radicalism in post-Suharto Indonesia.
Conflict and Collaboration in Natural Resource Management. International Development Research Centre.