Rhizopus oligosporus is a fungus of the family Mucoraceae and is a widely used starter culture for the production of tempeh at home and industrially. As the. This is a list of fermented foods, which are foods produced or preserved by the action of microorganisms. In this context, fermentation typically refers to the. ORIENTAL FERMENTED FOODS. MOLD MODIFIED FOODS. Soy sauce. Raw Materials and their treatment. Wheat: Salt. Koji: is a japanese name gives to a preparation consisting of mold growth on cooked cereals or/and soybeans. SAFETY OF ORIENAL FERMENTED FOODS.


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Microbiology of oriental fermented foods.

The biological diversity and richness of the distal intestine easily surpassed the relative richness of microbiomes, in terms of microbial taxa and genes, at other body sites such as human skin or the oral cavity.

The predominant taxa varied in different body sites and, as expected, the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes represented the predominant phyla in oriental fermented foods human intestine.

The relative predominance of bacterial genera and species varied. For example, Bacteroides fragilis was present in a quantity of at least 0. Moreover, the prevalence of B.

Both Bacteroides species are oriental fermented foods as commensal intestinal taxa that have been cultured and studied in the laboratory for their immunomodulatory and metabolic features.

Major health benefits conferred by probiotics. Predominant metabolic modules such as central carbohydrate metabolism represent major functional categories in the distal intestine as well as other body sites.

However, 86 percent of identified families of genes from the gut metagenomes have not yet been functionally characterized or mapped to complete pathways The Human Microbiome Project Consortium a.

In this respect, there is little point in putting huge effort into optimizing culture viability in the product, if the vast majority of cell viability is lost during gastric exposure. It is not surprising, therefore, that acid and bile tolerances are oriental fermented foods the criteria for selection of probiotic strains.

In addition, several studies have demonstrated that the food matrix can have a significant effect on the survival of bacteria during gastric transit. For example, Cheddar cheese was shown to elicit a protective effect on probiotic bacteria upon exposure to gastric juice when compared with oriental fermented foods Gardiner et al.

The composition of the environment can also influence microbial viability; for example, the presence of fermentable sugars e.

Furthermore, it has been suggested that exopolysaccharide-producing strains of LAB might be naturally protected in hostile environments Stanton et al. This concept is supported by results from randomized controlled clinical trials showing the benefits of probiotics during the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases Preidis and VersalovicThomas and Versalovic Probiotics may induce changes in the intestinal microbiota and stabilize microbial communities.

However, further studies in humans are needed to assess Oriental Fermented Functional Probiotic Foods whether probiotics can make the same impact on the human intestinal microbiome and whether the changes are associated with clinical benefits in the host Hemarajata and Versalovic In addition to directly affecting the composition of the intestinal microbiota, probiotics may also modulate the global metabolic function of intestinal microbiomes.

Fermented milk products containing several probiotics did not alter the composition of intestinal bacterial communities in gnotobiotic mice and monozygotic twins McNulty et al. However, fecal metatranscriptomic analysis of probiotics-treated animals demonstrated significant changes in expression of microbial enzymes, especially enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism.

Moreover, mass spectrometric analysis of urinary metabolites revealed altered abundance of several carbohydrate metabolites.


These observations suggested that probiotics may affect the global metabolic function of the intestinal microbiome. Some representative probiotic foods from various Asian countries are described below. Kimchi is mainly manufactured with Chinese cabbages Brassica pekinensis and oriental fermented foods, but other seasonings ingredients such as garlic, green onion, ginger, red pepper, mustard, parsley, fermented seafood jeotgalcarrot and salt may be used LeeOriental fermented foods et al.

List of fermented foods

Kimchi is made of various vegetables and contains a high concentration of dietary fiber, while being low in calories. One serving also provides over 50 percent of the daily recommended amount of vitamin C and carotene.

Most types of kimchi contain onions, garlic, and chilli peppers, all of which are salutary. The vegetables used in kimchi also contribute to its overall nutritional value as it is rich in vitamin A, thiamine B1riboflavin B2Microorganisms and Fermentation of Traditional Foods calcium, and iron, and contains a number of lactic acid bacteria LABamong those the typical species being Lactobacillus kimchii Leea et al.

These beneficial effects are attributed either to functional components vitamins, minerals, fiber and phytochemicals or to fermentation by LAB Lee et al.

A South Korean study found, however, that when eaten in large quantities, kimchi may increase the risk of gastric cancer, particularly among people with certain genetic traits Nan et al.

One study conducted by Seoul National University claimed that chickens infected with the H5N1 virus, also called avian flu, recovered after eating food containing the same bacteria found in kimchi.

During the SARS Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome outbreak in Asia many people believed that kimchi could protect against infection although there was no scientific evidence to support oriental fermented foods belief, and kimchi sales rose by 40 percent. There is no doubt that the preservation of plant material by fermentation dates back to prehistoric times.

Plinius the Elder, in the first century A.

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