Logic gates are used in microprocessors, microcontrollers, embedded system applications and in electronic and electrical project circuits. The basic logic gates are categorized into seven: AND, OR, XOR, NAND, NOR, XNOR and NOT. These logic gates with their logic gate symbols and truth tables are explained below. Digital Electronics Tutorial about Digital Logic Gates including their Logic Symbols, Logic Gate Truth Tables and Digital Logic Descriptions. While some people seem to have a natural ability to look at a truth table and immediately envision the necessary logic gate or relay logic circuitry for the task.


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Often considered to be the father to modern TTL logic. Current-mode logic CML Uses transistors to perform logic but biasing is from constant current sources to prevent saturation and allow extremely fast switching.

Has high noise immunity despite fairly logic gates truth tables logic levels. Quantum-dot cellular automata QCA Uses tunnelable q-bits for synthesizing the binary logic bits.


The electrostatic repulsive force in between two electrons in the quantum dots assigns the electron configurations that defines high-level logic state 1 or low-level logic state 0 under the suitably driven polarizations. This is a transistorless, currentless, junctionless binary logic synthesis technique allowing it to have very fast operation logic gates truth tables.

Electronic logic gates differ significantly from their relay-and-switch equivalents. They are much faster, consume much less power, and are much smaller all by a factor of a million or logic gates truth tables in most cases.


Also, there is a fundamental structural difference. The switch circuit creates a continuous metallic path for current to flow in either direction between its input and its output.

The semiconductor logic gate, on the other hand, acts as a high- gain voltage amplifierwhich sinks a tiny current at its input and produces logic gates truth tables low-impedance voltage at its output. It is not possible for current to flow between the output and the input of a semiconductor logic gate.

Another important advantage of standardized integrated circuit logic families, such as the and families, is that they can be cascaded.

Basic Logic Gates

It is also known as an inverter. This is also shown as A', or A with a bar over the top, as shown at the outputs. It can also be done logic gates truth tables NOR logic gates in the same way.

The outputs of all NAND gates are high if any of the inputs are low. The symbol is an AND gate with a small circle on the output.

The small circle represents inversion. If logic gates truth tables flame were to be extinguished, however, it would be unsafe to continue to inject waste into the combustion chamber, as it would exit the exhaust un-neutralized, and pose a health threat to anyone in close proximity to the exhaust.

Converting Truth Tables into Boolean Expressions | Boolean Algebra | Electronics Textbook

Several different flame-detection technologies exist: Suppose that due to the high degree of hazard involved with potentially passing un-neutralized waste out the exhaust of this incinerator, it is decided that the flame detection system be logic gates truth tables redundant multiple sensorsso that failure of a single sensor does not lead to an emission of toxins out the exhaust.

Each sensor comes equipped with a normally-open contact open if no flame, closed if flame detected which we will use to activate the inputs of a logic system: Our task, now, is to design the circuitry of the logic system to open the waste valve if and only if there is good flame proven by the sensors.

First, though, we must decide what the logical behavior of this control system should be.


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